|Ruthenium, as well as palladium and platinum, is also versatile catalyst used in heterogeneous catalysis, particularly when a well-developed surface is coated by ruthenium. Sometimes it is applied with platinum for increasing the catalytic activity. Rhodium-ruthenium-platinum alloy promotes ammonia oxidation in nitric acid production. Ruthenium catalysts are used for accelerating polymerization of ethylene, glycerol (glycerin or glycerine) and other polyhydric alcohols production by cellulose hydrogenising.|
Ruthenium organometallic compounds are used in homogeneous catalysis for various hydrogenising reactions, being as selective and active as rhodium-based catalysts.
The main advantage of ruthenium-based catalysts is their high selectivity which makes possible to use them in synthesis of a great variety of organic and inorganic compounds. They are serious competitors of rhodium, platinum and iridium based catalysts.